Θα μπορούσε η τεχνητή νοημοσύνη (Artificial Intelligence ή AI) να χαρακτηρίσει κάποιον εγκληματία μόνο από τα χαρακτηριστικά του προσώπου του; Με την εμφάνιση της φωτογραφίας, μερικοί επιστήμονες του 19ου αιώνα πίστευαν ότι θα μπορούσαν να αναπτύξουν μεθόδους για τον εντοπισμό των εγκληματιών από τα χαρακτηριστικά του προσώπου τους. Οι υποθέσεις τους αποδείχτηκαν τελικά αναξιόπιστες, αλλά μια νέα τεχνολογία τεχνητής νοημοσύνης (AI) υποστηρίζει ότι τελικά είχαν δίκιο.
To achieve this, researchers have used vision-engineing algorithms to look at photographs by contrasting photographs of criminals and non-criminals. The original goal was to find out if a neural network can be trusted.
In this process, scientists gave neuronal networks, 1856 identity pictures, in total, from men (without knowing) to people aged from 18 to 56. Half of them had a criminal record.
Researchers used only 90% of photos to train AI to recognize the differences between the two groups, and used the remaining 10 percent for their testing.
The result was impressive. The neural network could find out who had a criminal record with the astonishing accuracy of 89,5 percent.
"These highly consistent results are indicative of the validity of automated conclusions in criminal cases, despite the historical controversy surrounding the issue," the researchers said.
The MIT Technology Review, explains that there are three determinant features of the person counted from the neural network to make its classifications:
The curvature of the upper lip, which is an average of 23 percent greater for criminals.
The distance between the two inner corners of the eyes, which is 6 percent less to the criminals,
and the angle between the two lines coming from the tip of the nose to the corners of the mouth, which is 20 percent smaller.
What is extremely interesting is that compared to non-criminals, criminals tended to have much more variation in their personality characteristics.
"In other words, the faces of people who are not involved in the law have a greater degree of resemblance than the faces of criminals, or criminals have a higher degree of dissimilarity in the appearance of the face than normal people," says Xiaolin and Xi as an additional remark.
Of course, there are too many questions about the parameters of this study and how reliable the proposed method is.
The photographic sample given to the neural network was extremely limited. The fact that artificial intelligence could one day have the capacity to perform various identification work of the person can not be denied.
Now how threatening these methods can be for people who are law-abiding citizens is a matter that scientists should look at with caution.
If you are interested in the topic you can find more details in PDF with full academic work.