Linux: It's known. Supercomputers run with this operating system. In the last contest Top500 supercomputer, which took place in June of 2017, 498 from 500 supercomputers operated Linux. The other two used Unix as a functional one.
These were two Chinese IBM POWER PCs running AIX and are at the bottom of the list. The machinemata were ranked 493 and 494, while from the November 500 Top2016, these supercomputers fell over 100 places.
At this rate, Tux's operating system will have the dominant position in the next Top500 contest every two years.
When the first Top500 list of supercomputers was created in June 1993, Linux was more of a game rather than a serious operative and hadn't adopted Tux as its mascot yet.
From 1998, which first appeared on Top500, Linux dominated very fast in ultra-modern calculation.
Prior to taking over Linux, Unix was the top supercomputing operating system. From 2003, however, Top500 showed Linux to go beyond Unix, and until 2004, Linux had taken the lead for the better.
According to the report by The Linux Foundation, the rise of Linux in 20's year of Top500.org Supercomputer contests with advances in computing performance is due to two reasons.
Οι περισσότεροι από τους κορυφαίους υπερυπολογιστές του κόσμου είναι υπερ-κλιμακωτές ερευνητικές μηχανές που κατασκευάζονται για εξειδικευμένες εργασίες. Κάθε υπερυπολογιστής είναι ένα αυτόνομο project με μοναδικά characteristics and greatly increased optimization requirements. Thus, it is not affordable to develop a custom operating system for each system. With Linux, engineering teams can easily modify and optimize the operating system due to its open nature with innovative designs that characterize modern supercomputers.
Second and equally important:
"The cost of licensing a custom, self-supporting Linux distribution is the same, whether used on 20 nodes or 20 million nodes."
Thus, “by leveraging the vast community of open code που διαθέτει το λειτουργικό, τα projects είχαν πρόσβαση σε δωρεάν πconditions υποστήριξης και προγραμματιστές κάτι που διατηρεί το κόστος των προγραμματιστών ίσο με ή κάτω από άλλα λειτουργικά συστήματα”.
Thus, supercomputing power, and too many computers other than desktops to work with Windows, they will continue to use Linux.