It is the 70's. In our work we rely on typewriters. If we need to copy a document, we will most likely use a duplicator or carbon. Few have heard of microcomputers, but two young computer enthusiasts, Bill Gates and Paul Allen, see personal computers on the road to the future.
1975, Gates and Allen are co-operating under the Microsoft name. Like all new companies, Microsoft is small at its inception but has a huge vision - a computer in every office and every home. In the coming years, Microsoft is beginning to change our way of working.
The appearance of MS-DOS
In June 1980, Gates and Allen hired a former Gates classmate from Harvard, Steve Ballmer, to help run the company. Next month, IBM approaches Microsoft over a project codenamed "Chess." Microsoft responds by focusing on a new operating system - software that manages, or "executes", computer hardware and bridges the gap between hardware and computer programs (e.g., a word processor). These are the foundations on which computer programs can run. Their new operating system is called "MS ‑ DOS".
When the IBM MS ‑ DOS PC came on the market in 1981, it introduced a whole new language to the general public. Typing “C:” and a variety of coded commands is gradually becoming an integral part of everyday work. Users discover the inverted perpendicular key (\).
MS-DOS is effective, but it is also tricky for many. There should be a better way to develop an operating system.
Technical information: MS-DOS initials mean Microsoft Disk Operating System.
1982–1985: Presentation of Windows 1.0
Microsoft is working on the first release of a new operating system. Their code name is Interface Manager and is considered the ultimate, but ultimately the name prevails Window, because it better describes the computer frames or "windows" that are the key element of the new system. Windows was announced in 1983, but it took time to develop. Skeptics call them vaporware.
At 20 November of 1985, two years after the initial announcement, Microsoft launches them Windows 1.0. Now, instead of typing MS ‑ DOS commands, the user just has to move a mouse to navigate the various screens or "windows". According to Bill Gates, "This is a unique software intended for the serious computer user."
There are drop-down menus, scrollbars, icons and dialog boxes that speed up the learning and use of programs. The user can switch between multiple programs without the need to terminate and restart each program. Windows 1.0 comes with many programs such as MS ‑ DOS File Manager, Painting, Windows Writer, Notebook and Calculator, as well as a calendar, a card file and a clock to manage the user's daily activities. There is even a game, Reversi.
Technical information: Remember floppy disks and kilobytes? Windows 1.0 required at least 256 kilobytes (KB), two duplex disks, and a graphics adapter card. To run multiple programs or to use DOS 3.0 or later, a hard drive with 512 KB of memory was recommended.
1987–1990: Windows 2.0–2.11 More windows, higher speed
On December 9, 1987, Microsoft released Windows 2.0 with desktop icons and expanded memory. Thanks to the improved graphics support, the user could overlay windows, control the layout of the screen and use keyboard shortcuts to speed up the work. Some software developers are developing their first Windows-based programs for this version.
Windows 2.0 is designed for the Intel 286 processor. With the release of the Intel 386 processor, Windows / 386 will soon follow to take advantage of its extensive memory capabilities. Later versions of Windows continue to improve PC speed, reliability, and usability.
In 1988, Microsoft became the largest - by sales - software provider. Computers are beginning to take over the daily lives of some office workers.
Technical information: The Control Panel makes its first appearance in Windows 2.0.
1990–1994: Windows 3.0 – Windows NT — Introduction to graphics
On May 22, 1990, Microsoft announced the release of Windows 3.0, which was soon followed by Windows 3.1 in 1992. A total of 10 million copies of both versions were sold together in the first two years. This makes Windows the most widely used operating system to date. This great success is leading Microsoft to review its plans. Virtual memory enhances visual graphics. In 1990, Windows began to take on the look it's today.
Windows now has significantly improved performance, sophisticated graphics with 16 colors and improved icons. A new wave of computers with 386 processor helps to boost the popularity of Windows 3.0. With full support for the Intel 386 processor, programs run significantly faster. Program Manager, File Manager, and Print Manager first appear in Windows 3.0.
Window software is installed from floppy disks that are purchased in large packages and are accompanied by heavy instruction manuals.
The popularity of Windows 3.0 is growing with the release of a new Windows Software Development Kit (SDK), which helps developers focus more on creating programs and less on creating device drivers.
Windows is increasingly used at work and at home and now includes games such as Solitaire, Mugs and Minesweeper. Advertising of the time: "Now you can use the incredible power of Windows 3.0 to relax".
Window for Workgroups 3.11 adds peer-to-peer support and domain networking and, for the first time, computers are an integral part of new client / server computer technology developments.
With the release of Windows NT on July 27, 1993, Microsoft achieved a very important goal: the completion of a project that began in the late 80s with the goal of creating a completely new sophisticated operating system. "Windows NT is a major milestone in how companies can meet business requirements for computer use," Bill Gates said in a statement.
Unlike Windows 3.1, Windows NT 3.1 was a 32-bit operating system, which was a strategic business platform and supported advanced IT and science programs.
Technical information: The team that developed Windows NT was originally called the "portable systems" team.
1995–1998: Windows 95 — the PC is coming of age (and let's not forget the Internet)
On August 24, 1995, Microsoft released Windows 95, selling 7 million copies in its first five weeks. This is the release of the Microsoft product with the largest ad. The TV commercials show the Rolling Stones singing "Start Me Up", while images of the new "Start" button are shown. The press release begins with simple words: "He is here".
It's the age of fax / modems, email, the new electronic world, stunning multimedia games and educational software. Windows 95 features built-in Internet support, telephone networking, and new Installation and Immediate installation features that make it easy to install hardware and software. The 32-bit operating system also provides enhanced multimedia capabilities, more powerful features for laptop use, and built-in networking.
At the time of the release of Windows 95, previous Windows and MS ‑ DOS operating systems were running on about 80% of computers worldwide. Windows 95 was the upgrade of these operating systems. Running Windows 95 required a computer with a 386DX or higher processor (486 recommended) and at least 4 MB of RAM (8 MB RAM recommended). Upgrades were available on floppy disks and CD-ROMs. They were available in 12 languages.
In Windows 95, the Start menu, taskbar, the minimize, maximize, and close buttons appear in each window for the first time.
Following the Internet stream
In the early 90's, techies talked about the Internet — a network of other networks with the power to connect computers around the world. In 1995, Bill Gates, in his memoir "The tidal wave of the Internet", proclaimed the Internet as "the most important development since the advent of the computer."
In the summer of 1995, its first version is released Internet Explorer. The browser adds to those already competing for a place on the World Wide Web.
Technical information: In 1996, Microsoft released Flight Simulator for Windows 95 — It is the first time in its 14-year history that it is available for Windows.
1998–2000: Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows Me Windows evolves for work and leisure
Windows 98 was released on June 25, 1998 and is the first version of Windows designed specifically for consumers. Computers are widely used at work and at home, and Internet cafes appear everywhere where it is possible to connect. Windows 98 is described as an operating system with better performance and improved performance.
With Windows 98 the user could find information more easily on the computer, but also on the Internet. Other improvements included the ability to open and close programs faster as well as support for reading DVDs and single serial bus (USB) devices. Another feature introduced for the first time is the quick start bar, which allows the user to run programs without having to go to the Start menu or search the desktop.
Technical information: Windows 98 was the latest version based on MS ‑ DOS.
Designed for use on home computers, Windows Me has provided several improvements in music, video and home networking functions as well as reliability, compared to previous versions.
New Appearances: System Restore, a feature that can reset the computer software to a date or time earlier than when the problem occurred. Movie Maker provides users with tools for digitally editing, storing and sharing home videos. And with Microsoft Windows Media Player 7 technologies, the user has the ability to locate, organize and play digital media.
Technical information: Technically, Windows Me was the latest Microsoft operating system to be developed based on the Windows 95 code. Microsoft announced that all future operating system products would be based on the Windows NT and Windows 2000 kernel.
Windows 2000 Professional
Much more than a simple upgrade to Windows NT Workstation 4.0, Windows 2000 Professional was designed to replace Windows 95, Windows 98, and Windows NT Workstation 4.0 on all business desktops and laptops. Designed with the proven code base of Windows NT Workstation 4.0 in mind, Windows 2000 has added significant improvements in reliability, ease of use, Internet compatibility, and support for laptop use.
Among other improvements, Windows 2000 Professional simplifies hardware installation by adding support to a range of Installation and Immediate hardware products, including advanced networking and wireless products, USB devices, IEEE 1394 devices, and infrared devices.
Technical information: The stress response test, which was performed on Windows 2000 every night during development, corresponded to three months of operation of up to 1.500 computers.
2001–2005: Windows XP Stable, easy to use and fast
On October 25, 2001, Windows XP was released with a revamped focus on usability and a unified Help and Support Center. Available in 25 languages. From the mid-70s until the release of Windows XP, about 1 billion computers were sold worldwide.
For Microsoft, Windows XP will become one of the best-selling products in the coming years. It is fast and stable. Navigating to the Start menu, taskbar and Control Panel is more intuitive. Awareness of computer viruses and intruders is on the rise, but fears are being reassured as part of providing Internet security updates. Consumers are beginning to understand warnings about suspicious attachments and viruses. Greater emphasis is placed on Help and Support.
Windows XP Home Edition has a flawless, simplified visual design that makes the most common functions more accessible. Designed for home use, Windows XP provides enhancements such as Network Setup Wizard, Windows Media Player, Windows Movie Maker, and enhanced digital photography capabilities.
Windows XP Professional provides the integrated Windows 2000 desktop infrastructure, improving reliability, security, and performance. With a refreshed visual design, Windows XP Professional offers business and advanced home PC capabilities, including remote desktop support, a file encryption system, system restore, and advanced networking capabilities. Key upgrades for laptop users include 802.1x wireless networking support, Windows Messenger, and Remote Assistance.
Windows XP has been released in several editions over the years:
The 64-bit version of Windows XP (2001) is Microsoft's first operating system for 64-bit processors, designed to run on high-capacity memory and for tasks such as movie special effects, XNUMXD animation, computer programs, and scientist.
Windows XP Media Center Edition (2002) is designed for home use and entertainment. The user could browse the Internet, watch live TV, enjoy digital music and video collections, and watch DVDs.
Windows XP Tablet PC Edition (2002) made the vision of using computers with a pen a reality. Tablet PCs included a digital pen for handwriting recognition, but the user could also use the mouse or keyboard.
Technical information: Windows XP consists of 45 million lines of code.
2006–2008: Windows Vista …….
Windows Vista was released in 2006 and has the most powerful security system. User Account Control helps prevent changes to your computer from potentially dangerous software. In Windows Vista Ultimate, BitLocker drive encryption provides enhanced data protection for PC as laptop sales and security needs increase. Windows Vista also has improvements in Windows Media Player as more and more users begin to see their computers as the main digital media devices. With this software they could watch TV, view and send photos and edit videos.
Design plays a big role in Windows Vista and features like taskbar and window frames take on a whole new look. Search takes on new meaning and helps users locate files on their computers faster. Windows Vista introduces new versions that offer a different combination of features. Available in 35 languages. The updated Start button appears for the first time in Windows Vista.
Technical information: More than 1,5 million devices are compatible with Windows Vista on the day of its release.
2009: Windows 7 launches Windows Touch for the first time
Windows 7 was released in the late 2000s, for the new era of wireless networking. Sales of laptops exceeded those of desktops, and it is common to connect to the Internet through public wireless hotspots in cafes as well as through private networks in homes.
Windows 7 includes new ways to work with windows, such as the "Hold", "Peek" and "Shake" features, which improve functionality and make the use of the interface more fun. They also mark the first appearance of Windows Touch, which allows users of touch screen systems to browse the Web, view photos and open files and folders.
Technical information: Prior to their release, Windows 7 was evaluated by 8 million beta testers worldwide.
2012: The Windows 8 have applications and tiles
The Windows 8 represent a new philosophy for the operating system, from the technological level to the user experience, and feature a brand new interface that works seamlessly on both touch systems and mouse and keyboard systems. They work on tablets for entertainment, but also on a full computer to perform tasks. The Windows 8 are also characterized by improvements to the familiar Windows desktop, including a new taskbar and simplified file management.
The Windows 8 include a Start screen that consists of tiles that are linked to contacts, files, applications, and Web sites. Apps are at the center, and there is a new location for downloading applications, the Windows Store, which is embedded in the Start screen.
Windows 8 Pro
Along with the Windows 8, Microsoft is also releasing the Windows RT which are running on some tablets and PCs. The Windows RT designed for sleek, long-battery devices and can only run applications from the Windows Store. They are also accompanied by an Office version optimized for touchscreens.
Technical information: Experienced users will notice that debugging and debugging the file system in Windows 8 are made easier and with less intervention.
2013: The Windows 8.1 broaden their potential Windows 8
The Windows 8.1 broaden their potential Windows 8 providing a rich collection of apps and cloud connections to great devices. Everything that their users loved Windows 8, with additional improvements.
The Windows 8.1 is to achieve Microsoft's vision of innovation, utilizing customer feedback about them Windows 8, offering many improvements and new features: more personalization options Start screen with synchronization across all devices, desktop boot option, Smart Bing search so you can find what you're looking for across your PC or the Web, button Start ”to navigate between the desktop and the Start screen and more flexible options for viewing multiple applications simultaneously on one or all screens. Also included are several new built-in apps like Bing Recipes, Bing Health and Wellness and great helper apps like Reading List, Calculator and Wake Up. Many of these great applications are included in Windows 8 are improved, making your experience more enjoyable than the first minute.
In addition to these changes in user experience, the Windows 8.1 include new and improved features such as Workplace Logon and Work Folders. With these capabilities, Windows devices can be more easily linked to corporate resources.
Technical information: Experienced multi-screen users can now display up to four apps from the Windows Store on each screen connected to the computer.
Source: Microsoft products