Linux. It has been around since the mid-90s and since then has had many friends, from home users to organizations and companies that choose stability and security.
For those who know, Linux is really everywhere: it's on your phones, in your cars, in your refrigerators, on various other devices. It manages most of the Internet, supercomputers that make scientific discoveries and stock exchanges around the world.
But before Linux became a platform for desktops, servers, and embedded systems around the world, it was (and still is) one of the most reliable, secure operating systems.
For those who do not know, below you will find all the information you need to understand the Linux platform.
What is Linux?
Like Windows XP, 7, 8, 10 and Mac OS, Linux is an operating system. An operating system is the software that manages all the hardware resources that your desktop or laptop computer "wears".
Simply put, the operating system manages the communication between the software and the hardware. Without the operating system (often referred to as the "OS"), the software would not work.
The operating system consists of several parts:
The Bootloader: It is the software that manages the startup process of your computer. For most, this will be just a splash screen that will appear before the operating system starts.
The core: It is essentially "Linux" itself. It is the core of the system that manages the CPU, memory and peripherals. The kernel is the "lowest" level of the operating system.
Daemons: These are background services (for printing, audio, programming, etc.) that either start at startup or after you log on to the desktop.
Shell: You may have heard of the Linux command line. This is Shell - a command process that lets you control the computer with commands. This, of course, was something many people feared about Linux (assuming they had to learn a seemingly archaic command line structure to run Linux). This is no longer the case. With modern Linux, you do not need to touch the command prompt.
Graphical Server: It is the subsystem that displays the graphics on your screen. Usually referred to as X server or simply "X".
Desktop Environment: It is the piece of the puzzle with which users interact. There are many desktops to choose from (Unity, GNOME, Cinnamon, Enlightenment, KDE, XFCE, etc.). Each interface includes built-in applications (such as file managers, configuration tools, browsers, games, etc.).
Applications: User environments do not provide all the applications you need. But every Linux system allows you to install thousands of high quality applications. Most modern Linux distributions have App Store-type tools that integrate and simplify application installation. For example: Ubuntu Linux has the Ubuntu Software Center (Figure 1) that lets you quickly search through thousands of applications and install them from a central location.